Research on the Countermeasures of China's packagi

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A study on the Countermeasures of China's packaging to deal with green barriers green barriers is a new trade barrier. It is a new type of trade protection measures, including technical standards, green packaging system, conformity assessment procedures, inspection and quarantine regulations, intellectual property rights, enterprise society, etc. when the traditional trade protection measures, such as tariffs, licenses, quotas, etc., are gradually weakened or even cancelled, and has an increasing impact on international trade, Two thirds of China's export enterprises and one third of its export commodities are affected by it, and the export loss reaches 20billion US dollars every year [1]. Green packaging system has become one of the main contents of green barriers in developed countries. China's foreign exchange income is reduced by about 10% every year due to packaging problems [2], a considerable part of which is caused by packaging that does not meet the green requirements

among the green barriers set up by countries all over the world, the European Union (EC) countries with the strongest environmental awareness are the most representative, which is likely to lead the transition to market consumption. This paper focuses on the "94/62/ec directive of the European Parliament and the Council on packaging and packaging waste treatment" of the green packaging system promulgated by the European Union in 1994, implemented in 1997 and amended in 2004. It analyzes and discusses the main contents of the restrictions on packaging by green barriers, the green requirements for packaging and packaging waste, and the countermeasures that China should take for packaging

1 composition of 94/62/ec

"directive of the European Parliament and the Council of 94/62/ec on packaging and packaging waste treatment" is one of the green barriers that have the greatest impact on China's export trade. In practical application, according to the basic requirements of 94/62/ec directive (equivalent to China's mandatory national standards) on the composition and reduction of packaging materials and the indicators that should be achieved for the recycling of packaging waste, six coordinated standards (equivalent to China's recommended national standards), a conformity assessment procedure for enterprises and a set of label and mark system have been formulated, which constitute an organic whole

6 harmonized standards (en13427 - EN13432) are:

en13427 European standard requirements for use of packaging and packaging waste

en13428 prevention of resource reduction for special requirements of packaging manufacturing and composition

en has adopted its own standard system and standard 13429 packaging reuse for technical indicators of materials in foreign automobile enterprises; En13430 requirements for evaluating the recyclability of packaging through material recycling; En13431 requirements for evaluating the recyclability of packaging in the form of energy recovery (including the provisions on the minimum calorific value)

en13432 requirements for evaluating recyclability of packaging through synthesis and biodegradation (test scheme and evaluation standard for final acceptance of packaging)

6 coordination standards are very important. They are specific technical measures to implement the Directive 94/62/ec on strengthening exchange and cooperation inside and outside the province and at home and abroad. Their contents cover the requirements for packaging use, material composition, reduction, and various forms and evaluation requirements for packaging waste recycling; At the same time, it is also the technical basis for conformity assessment of packaging enterprises. Therefore, Directive 94/62/ec, harmonized standards, conformity assessment procedures and label marking system form a complete system of green packaging system. The following is a discussion of the characteristics of this system:

$page break $294/62/ec main contents and objectives achieved

2 1 basic requirements

EU Directive 94/62/ec is a technical regulation. The basic requirements are mandatory and the first technical threshold for market access. Only products that meet the basic requirements can be put on the market and delivered for use. Its basic requirements are: (1) to ensure health and life safety; (2) Protecting the environment and national ecological security; (3) protect the interests of consumers; (4) Rational utilization of resources and energy

2. 2 main contents

94/62/ec can be divided into two parts:

1) limit the substances harmful to the environment and human health contained in packaging and packaging wastes

(1) limit toxic and harmful organic substances that are volatile, soluble, miscible and in contact with human body; (2) Limit and minimize the total amount of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury and hexavalent chromium, and avoid the harm to human body caused by fly ash, smoke and leachate of packaging materials containing the above heavy metals after incineration and landfill; (3) limit toxic and harmful emissions (fluorine, chlorine, sulfur, nitrogen, etc.), toxic and harmful heavy metal exudates, and limit ecological damaging microorganisms through phytosanitary and quarantine measures (SPS Agreement) to ensure environmental and ecological safety

2) reduce the loss of resources and energy

in the EU directive, the measures to reduce resource and energy consumption, in addition to reducing the amount and preventing the generation of packaging waste, are first to advocate reuse (waste reduction), then recyclable (resource recovery), and then recyclable (energy recovery)

2. 3 basic requirements for the composition and properties of the package

1) requirements for the manufacturing and composition of the package

(1) during the production of packaging, the volume and quality of the packaging shall be limited to the minimum degree of applicability, so as to maintain a safe, hygienic and acceptable level for the packaged products and consumers; (2) When packaging is designed, produced and commercialized, it can be reused, recycled and recycled. When packaging waste is destroyed, its impact on the environment can be minimized; (3) The contents of toxic or other harmful substances in the components of packaging materials shall be minimized, so that these substances in fly ash, smoke or leachate are also minimized during incineration or landfill

2) requirements for the reusable nature of packaging

(1) the physical properties and characteristics of the package shall enable it to be used repeatedly or circularly under service conditions; (2) Dispose of used packaging when it meets the health and safety conditions for the workforce; (3) When the package is no longer reused and becomes waste, it shall be treated according to the requirements of recyclable packaging. These three items must be met at the same time

3) requirements for the recyclable nature of packaging

(1) recycled packaging. Its packaging materials must contain a certain mass percentage of renewable products that meet the European community standards; The determination of this percentage depends on the type of material packed; (2) Energy recovery type recyclable packaging. The packaging waste must have the lowest calorific value; (3) Synthetic recyclable packaging. The packaging waste to be treated due to synthesis must have such biodegradable properties that it shall not prevent separate collection, synthetic treatment or introduction of activity; (4) Biodegradable packaging. The waste must be able to undergo physical, chemical, thermal or biological decomposition treatment, and most of the treated compounds will eventually be decomposed into carbon dioxide, biomass and water

2. 4 goal of packaging and packaging waste recycling

94/62/ec goal is: July, 2001, and range classification refers to one month of corresponding characteristic parameters of the experimental machine, and the recovery rate of packaging waste must reach 65% in terms of quality; 25% ~ 45% of the packaging waste must be recycled and reused, and the minimum reuse value of each material shall not be less than 15%; By december31,2008, the overall recycling proportion should reach 60% and the overall recycling proportion should reach 55%

on december31,2008, different packaging materials are required to reach different recycling ratios, with glass and paper recycling of 60%, metal recycling of 50%, and plastic recycling of 22 5% for wood. Each member state may decide on its own how to achieve the set objectives

2. 5 conformity assessment procedure

the manufacturer shall draft a technical document to assess whether its packaged products comply with the 94/62/ec directive and the "basic requirements for packaging ingredients and reusable and recyclable properties" of the six coordinated standards, which is called conformity assessment

see the harmonized standards for the specific methods of conformity assessment

conformity assessment can be divided into first-party (manufacturer) certification or third-party (certification authority) certification, and the third-party certification has a greater impact. Product safety is directly related to the life and health of consumers, so safety certification is mandatory

according to the third party certification, if the packaged products comply with the provisions of "2.3 - 2", and the total concentration of chromium, cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium and other heavy metals does not exceed 100mg/kg (i.e. 100ppm) after 2001, the "reusable packaging mark" can be used; Where the packaged products comply with the provisions of (1), (3) and (4) in the chapter "2.3 - 3", and the total concentration of chromium, cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium and other heavy metals does not exceed 100mg/kg (100ppm) after 2001, the packaging mark of "recyclable and reusable" can be used

2. 6 label, mark and identification system

label, mark and identification are uniformly attached to the package, belonging to the category of packaging. A mark or mark refers to a symbol or graphic appearing on a commodity or its corresponding packaging, including a symbol warning of danger or a graphic indicating that the product can be recycled; The purpose of using signs is to remind consumers of safety, health and environmental protection issues that should be paid attention to when using goods. Labels are in the form of words or numbers, which express all the information of commodities, such as size, volume, price, some harmful substances that may exist in products, etc; For some products that are easy to cause safety, the label is mandatory, such as cosmetics, canned meat, organic food and genetically modified food. It is also the primary condition for this kind of food to enter the EU market

signs and labels are mandatory and voluntary. The mandatory mark in the EU market is the CE certification mark, which is the pass for industrial products to enter the EU market. It is applied to household appliances, textiles, cosmetics, medical equipment, explosives, electronic and electrical equipment and automobiles

voluntary signs include eco label and green point for textiles to enter the European market

in order to facilitate the collection, reuse and recycling (including recycling) of the packaging, the properties of the packaging materials used shall be classified and identified. EU regulations: the adopted identification number is 1 ~ 19 for plastic, 20 ~ 29 for paper and paperboard, 40 ~ 49 for metal, 50 ~ 59 for wood, 60 ~ 69 for fabric and 70 ~ 79 for glass. The identification system can also adopt abbreviations for relevant materials (for example, HDPE is high-density polyethylene)

materials can be identified by numbering system and/or abbreviations. The identification symbol shall appear in the center or under the graphic mark indicating the reusable or recyclable nature of the package

$page break $3 "green" requirements for packaging in the green packaging system

94/62/ec directives and harmonized standards put forward strict "green" requirements for packaging entering the EU and other markets, thus promoting the "green" of packaging. To sum up, the "green" requirements for packaging and various green packaging under these requirements have the following aspects:

1) strictly limit the content of toxic and harmful heavy metals and maximum elements in packaging and packaging materials

(1) in all packaging materials, packaging and packaging components, the maximum allowable limit of the total concentration of lead, cadmium, mercury and hexavalent chromium is 100mg/kg (100ppm), which is intended to protect groundwater sources and soil; (2) See Table 1 for the maximum allowable element content of packaging materials and all packages; (3) the manufacturer shall also ensure that other harmful substances are minimized

2) replace restricted or suspicious materials with safe materials. (1) Replace PVC with pet. The vinyl chloride monomer in PVC is listed as a restricted material in the packaging of food, medicine and products in contact with children. 78/142/eec

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