Research on the application of RFID technology in

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Research on the application of RFID technology in container transportation

container transportation is a great change in the mode of freight transportation, the most ideal mode of bulk cargo transportation, and the most standardized mode of transportation at present. It is favored by customers and merchants because of its good transportation privacy, non damaged packaging, low transportation cost, strong environmental adaptability, high loading density, standard palletizing, and has become an important form of transportation modernization. In recent years, the proportion of "containerization" of global transportation has been increasing. Especially in international trade, container transportation has become a major mode of transportation. The marine general cargo transportation in developed countries has basically realized containerization. Container transportation has had a great impact on promoting the development of economy and trade, improving the economic structure and transportation structure, and expanding the opening to the outside world, but its existing problems can not be ignored

1 problems encountered in container transportation

1.1 large loss of goods stolen

with the rapid development of container transportation and the continuous increase of container traffic volume, the problem of container goods stolen in many countries and regions in the world has become more and more serious. According to statistics, the global losses caused by container theft incidents amount to $30billion to $50billion. Including indirect losses, the global annual losses are $200billion, of which the United States accounts for $10billion. For example, a $5million container theft incident occurred in Dallas in 2004, which made the shipping company suffer heavy losses, and its business was almost at a standstill. The loss caused by the theft of container goods can be seen from this

1.2 the accuracy of traditional identification is low

in the whole process of container transportation, the container is identified by its unique identification - container number; The handover of containers is also subject to the container number. The accuracy of traditional container identification method is not high. For example, manual data collection is not only prone to errors, but also takes a relatively long time. At present, 35% of the information obtained by traditional identification methods is inaccurate or not real-time, and it is simply impossible to accurately and timely track the 4W (what, what, what, when) information of containers. For OCR supervision, 16 cameras are required to shoot at the same time. The cost is very high, but the recognition rate is only 80%-90%. Due to the influence of weather conditions, the recognition rate in rain and fog is much lower. The low accuracy of container identification directly affects the efficiency of the whole supply chain

safety, efficiency and conflict

according to statistics, there are about 20million containers in the world, carrying out about 200million container times of transnational transportation every year. Take Shanghai port, the third largest container shipping center in the world, as an example. In 2005, the container throughput reached 18million TEU - F00T equivalent units, that is, nearly 50000 TEUs and only 1/6u of 304 stainless steel passed through Shanghai port every day. The port transport simulation experiment shows that when the random sampling rate of containers reaches 10%, the whole port will fall into a state of paralysis. If the randomness of random inspection is deducted, it can not effectively prevent criminals from using containers to smuggle or transport weapons of destruction to launch terrorist attacks (according to the estimate of the Federal Bureau of investigation, at least one of every four containers transported in the United States has been tampered with, which is very dangerous). Although the large container X-ray machine can see through the goods in the container, it takes 6 minutes to thoroughly inspect one container. At best, it can only thoroughly inspect 240 containers per day when working at full capacity. Moreover, the X-ray machine is only responsible for "looking". It still depends on people's naked eyes to identify contraband, which reduces its reliability. An X-ray machine needs 30million yuan. The high price makes it impossible for ports and border crossings to purchase such equipment in large quantities. There is a serious conflict between container safety and transport efficiency. These problems have had a negative impact on the container transportation, but also made some major stakeholders of container transportation suffer huge losses, and seriously weakened the efficiency of the entire supply chain. In order to prevent goods from being stolen, prevent terrorists from using containers to carry out terrorist attacks with destructive weapons, and then in order to improve transportation efficiency, security and service quality, as well as the visibility and transparency of the entire supply chain, and reduce the threat of terrorist activities to the global logistics supply chain, container transportation urgently needs a technology that can update data in real time to collect and process information in a timely and accurate manner, RFID technology is undoubtedly the best choice

2 application of RFID in container transportation

2.1 container is the first stage of implementing RFID in the supply chain

in the application of supply chain, when manufacturers import RFID technology, they will be divided into the following four stages, which will inevitably lead to weaker domestic demand: container stage, pallet stage, packaging container stage and single product stage. As the first implementation stage of container, the application of RFID technology not only helps to increase the ability to control goods and reduce the loss, theft and damage of containers and their goods, but also enables real-time tracking of containers through electronic tags

2.2 the application of RFID in container transportation has its particularity

compared with the application of automatic identification technology in industrial automation, transportation control management and other fields, the application of RFID technology in container transportation has strong particularity. ① Poor working environment. The electronic tag flows along with the container at sea, wharf, storage yard and other places, and the working environment is relatively harsh: high temperature (80 ℃), large temperature difference, high air humidity, serious acid-base corrosion, and large vibration impact. ② High identification requirements. Due to the rapid movement of containers, higher requirements are put forward for the identification parameters of electronic labels: high identification speed (moving speed moo km/h), long distance (6 m), high accuracy (99%), large data capacity (8kbits), etc. Considering the special application requirements of Ⅱ container transportation environment, high frequency (such as 2.45GHz, 5.8GHz) and active electronic labels should be selected in container transportation

2.3 RFID technology will bring new highlights to container transportation

with the rapid development of container transportation and the gradual implementation of "safe trade plan" (including container security plan, customs trade partner anti-terrorism plan, commercial operation security plan, 24-hour advance declaration of goods, intelligent safe trade channel, etc.), RFID system will be gradually established in ports and ports in various countries and regions, RFID technology will bring new highlights to container transportation

2.3.1 automatic identification of containers. The tag recording the container number, container type, cargo type, quantity and other data is installed on the container. When passing through the highway and railway entrances and exits with identification equipment, the RFID tag automatically senses and returns the corresponding data to the reader, so as to transmit the information stored on the tag to the EDI system, realizing the dynamic tracking and management of the container, It improves the efficiency of container transportation and information sharing. This system generally uses passive RFID technology, which is widely used in container terminals. This system not only accelerates the speed of vehicle carrying suitcases into the port, but also strictly manages the vehicle carrying suitcases, and reduces the errors caused by human factors

2.3.2 electronic seals and cargo tracking. Generally, the electronic seal adopts the mixed form of physical seal and RFID components. Most electronic seals can be used with passive and active RFID technology. The main characteristics of passive electronic seals are: short use distance, low cost and disposable. Because passive seals can not provide continuous power to detect the status of seals, they can not detect and record the time of damage, but only provide information about their integrity through the supply chain node equipped with reading equipment. Active electronic seals are more complex and can only be used repeatedly when their prices have dropped significantly. Combined with GPS technology, the active seal can transmit the time, place and surrounding environmental information of the status change to the owner or manager's machine in real time when the container status changes. Some seals can provide instant distress signals in case of damage

3 problems to be solved in the application of RFID in container transportation

3.1 selecting the effective point of torque and speed

container transportation involves a large number of related enterprises, such as freight forwarders, trailer companies, feeder shipping companies, shipping companies, ports, storage yards (companies that specifically invest about 1billion yuan in the phase I project for the storage of empty containers), etc. the space range is large and the process of goods circulation is complex. Therefore, in order to establish an RFID system for container transportation, the first thing to face is the selection of system nodes. The following principles are established for node selection: the RFID system has a high utilization rate and brings better economic and social benefits; The strength of the construction unit is relatively strong, and the information system, network and other supporting facilities are complete; RFID system can bring better service to relevant units

according to this principle, it is very appropriate to select RFID nodes in empty container yard and port yard. For shippers or consignees, because of the large number of such enterprises and large scale differences, especially for many small and medium-sized shippers, the RFID system is generally only used by themselves, and its utilization rate must be very low, so it is not used as a node of the RFID system

3.2 standard issues

the standard involves many contents, including air interface protocol standard, coding standard, test label and reader/writer communication protocol standard, as well as a series of application standards. The common ones are mainly air interface protocol standards, such as 18000-6b

at present, none of the three major RFID standards is particularly suitable for container applications. The container industry has its own RFID automatic identification standard ISO 10374 (199119952005), which directly writes the container number and user information, and directly identifies the information during identification, avoiding the process of code analysis, and is more suitable for the current application of automatic container identification. Of course, since the standard is mainly an international standard for the container industry and has not been followed up by major international companies, the label cost is relatively high

3.3 cost problem

the cost problem itself is not a problem. The key is to look at the input-output ratio, rather than a simple label price problem. Reliable reading, suitable for the harsh container transportation environment, and stable reading and writing performance of the electronic tag is the fundamental, and a reasonable business model is the key, not the tag price itself. Comparing the price of containers and the goods they carry, the cost of using RFID tags in container transportation is completely acceptable

3.4 data structure

in the container transportation RFID system, the tag data should not only meet the needs of relevant enterprises in the supply chain for data storage and processing, but also ensure that the business secrets of relevant enterprises are not disclosed. Each relevant enterprise in the supply chain has different demands for the data of goods in containers, that is, the level of detail of the data is different. For example, the port needs to know the cargo type, container type, size, container weight, destination port, etc., while the shipping company also needs to know more detailed data such as the specific name of the cargo in the container. Therefore, the tag data structure of RFID system in container transportation should solve the relationship between data integrity and confidentiality

3.5 data validity

3.5.1 data conflict. When multiple electronic tags appear in the recognition area of an electronic tag reader, the reader sends out the recognition command

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